Saturday, August 01, 2015

Weekend Roundup

This season’s excavations at Tel Kabri uncovered 120 huge wine jars.

Three reliefs have been discovered from the Middle Kingdom site of al-Hoody near Aswan.

Leen Ritmeyer explains the significance of a small window on the Temple Mount.

John Bartlett shares his recollections from excavating with Kathleen Kenyon in Jerusalem.

Ferrell Jenkins shares photos and information about Maresha of the Shephelah.

SourceFlix has released a video short on the Walls of Jericho.

Available at last: Tell er-Rumeith: The Excavations of Paul W. Lapp, 1962 and 1967, by Tristan J. Barako and Nancy L. Lapp.

The British Library and the National Library of Israel are partnering to digitize at least 860 Hebrew manuscripts. The British Library’s current collection is here.

HT: Ted Weis, Joseph Lauer, Agade

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Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Murex Map of Lebanon

(Post by A.D. Riddle)

The journal Hannon: Revue libanaise de géographie is published by the Lebanese University in Beirut. The cover of the journal depicts a map of Lebanon using the shape of a Murex mollusk shell—a pretty clever idea, I thought. The sea snail that calls these shells home was extracted by the Phoenicians to create a purple dye.

Cover graphic of Hannon journal compared to a map of Lebanon.

Murex shell from Sidon.

Three species of Murex at the British Museum.

Ferrell Jenkins has written several informative blog posts about the purple dye.

Monday, July 27, 2015

New Translation of the Amarna Letters, by Anson Rainey

(Post by A.D. Riddle)

Last December, the publisher Brill released The El-Amarna Correspondence: A New Edition of the Cuneiform Letters from the Site of El-Amarna based on Collations of all Extant Tablets, by Anson Rainey.

When Anson Rainey passed away in February 2011, he had not yet completed this new edition of the Amarna Letters. Rainey undertook the massive effort of producing a new collation all tablets that contain correspondence from Tell el-Amarna (the exceptions being four tablets that since their discovery were lost or destroyed; two Hittite letters, and one Hurrian letter). A collation, in this context, means a copy of the text based upon close personal inspection of the physical inscription itself. Rainey describes in the Introduction how he began work on this project as early as 1971, although the main effort commenced in 1999. Since the tablets are currently held in several museums around the globe, this was no easy task. Below are a list of the museums. The first few museums hold dozens of Amarna Letters; the rest hold far less, in most cases only two or three tablets or even just a fragment of a tablet. The Amarna Letters are housed today in:
                    Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin
                    British Museum, London
                    The Egyptian Museum, Cairo
                    Louvre, Paris
                    Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
                    Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
                    Pushkin Museum, Moscow
                    Musees Royeaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels
                    Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago
                    İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri

At the very end of last year, nearly four years after his passing, Rainey's magnum opus was brought to completion: a two-volume set entitled The El-Amarna Correspondence: A New Edition of the Cuneiform Letters from the Site of El-Amarna based on Collations of all Extant Tablets. Handbook of Oriental Studies Section 1: The Near and Middle East 110. Boston: Brill, 2015.


(This is one of a few magna opera produced by Rainey in his lifetime—The Sacred Bridge could count as one [here, review here]; his four-volume grammar of the Amarna Letters, Canaanite in the Amarna Tablets, could count as another [vol. 1vol. 2vol. 3vol. 4]; an earlier publication of new Amarna Letters yet a third).

As you can see in the photo below, volume 1 is the main volume. It contains a 50-page introduction (including an essay by Jana Mynářová on the discovery of the tablets), a transliteration and English translation of every one of the nearly 350 Amarna Letters, and an Akkadian Glossary. Volume 1 is just a hair thicker than a Rubik's Cube. Volume 2 is much slimmer and contains commentary for each letter:
  • the name of the sender and recipient
  • museum number of the tablet
  • previous publications of the text and translations
  • sometimes a brief paragraph about the disposition of the tablet or the historical situation of the tablet's contents
  • line-by-line discussion for readings of specific cuneiform signs and words based on Rainey's collation in comparison to earlier readings.

The El-Amarna Correspondence by Anson Rainey will be the standard edition of the Amarna Letters for this generation, and anyone who uses this material in their research would benefit from consulting Rainey's work.

As I was preparing this post, I was a little surprised by the quality of proofreading I encountered. I expected in an academic work of this type that greater care would be taken. And since they have given it a regal price tag (retail $293), I would assume the publisher could afford top proofreading talent. There were a handful of typographical mistakes in volume 1, but volume 2 contained quite a few typographical mistakes as well as factual errors. Between and within the volumes, there is confusion over EA 380-382 (their disposition, museum numbers, etc.). On another note, for volume 1, page numbers were not included on the first page of each letter, and since several letters are less than a single page in length, that means there are stretches of the volume without any page numbers at all. It would have been nice to have a page number printed on every page.


Saturday, July 25, 2015

Weekend Roundup

Chris McKinny explains the fortifications of Tel Burna that were discovered this season.

The Charlotte Observer reports on Shimon Gibson’s excavations in Jerusalem.

Tracy Hoffman has a wrap-up on the 2015 season at Ashkelon.

James R. Strange is interviewed by the Ancient Jew Review about his excavations of Shikhin.

Excavations of the Red Sea harbor of Berenike have revealed many inscriptions and much more.

A scene discovered at Göbeklitepe in Turkey may be the world’s oldest pictograph.

Philip II of Macedonia may be buried in a different tomb in Vergina than originally thought.

Chickens were first raised for mass consumption at Maresha in the Hellenistic period, a new study claims.

Aleteia tells the story of how new life has come to Magdala.

Hershel Shanks is interviewed by Author Talk on the 40th anniversary of Biblical Archaeology Review.

In light of Tisha B’Av, Wayne Stiles looks to the Burnt House to help us examine our motives.

A copy of Lamentations from the Dead Sea Scrolls was on display for the first time at the Bible Lands Museum.

HT: Joseph Lauer

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Thursday, July 23, 2015

Free Course on the Lands of the Bible

If you ever wanted to learn more about the Lands of the Bible but you’re not a traditional student or you can’t afford to travel to the Middle East, you will want to check out the free online “Survey of the Lands of the Bible” class that Mark Vitalis Hoffman is offering through Gettysburg Seminary.

The course runs from September to December and gives you the opportunity to do as much or as little as your schedule permits. You can watch videos, read the textbook, and join in discussions.

You can learn more here.

This also would be a great opportunity for those who have traveled to the Lands of the Bible but the tour left them longing for more!

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Tuesday, July 21, 2015

Interactive Map - Joshua 12 Slain King Town List

(by Chris McKinny)

The book of Joshua has the most geographical details of any book in the Bible. This is particularly the case for Joshua 13-21, which provides a series of different lists or non-graphic "maps" describing different aspects of Israel's tribal settlement. Joshua 12, which precedes this section, is different (and unique) than the subsequent lists in that it provides a detailed list of 34 "slain kings" of Moses and Joshua. In a sense, this list provides a summary of Numbers 21 (the Transjordan Conquest under Moses) and Joshua 5-11 (the campaigns in Cis-Jordan under Joshua) as it lists all of the towns mentioned in these campaigns and provides some additional towns (e.g. Tirzah) that were apparently involved in the conquest.

Interactive Map of Joshua 12

Site Identifications

In this interactive map, I have compiled all of the towns in the list and provided the known archaeological details about the site (see also bibliography below) in a compact form. Wherever possible I have linked a low-resolution photo of the site. Of the 34 towns in the list, 30 can be identified with relative certainty. These four sites include the following: Goiim, which has not been identified; Ai which is probably to be identified in the area of et-Tell, but the conquest site could be located at a nearby site (e.g. Kh. el-Maqatir?); Hormah has not been securely identified, but I suggest Tell Beit Mirsim (McKinny 2015); and Maron/Madon/Meron is possibly Tell el-Khureibeh (e.g. Rainey and Notley 2006:129) just on the Lebanese side of the Israeli-Lebanese border. There are various identification problems with other sites in the list, however, most of these site identifications are generally agreed upon.

Archaeological Analysis

Assuming the traditional connection between Ai and et-Tell and my suggested connection of Hormah with Tell Beit Mirsim, this leaves us with 32 sites that have been identified and surveyed or excavated. Significantly, 28 of these 32 sites have clear Late Bronze Age remains. And what are the sites that are missing Late Bronze? Heshbon (Tell Heshban), Ai (et-Tell?), Arad (Tell Arad), and Makkedah (Khirbet el-Qom). Makkedah was only briefly excavated and Middle Bronze remains were found at the site, which might hint at the presence of later remains. Heshbon revealed phases of the earliest Iron I phases, but not Middle or Late Bronze Age. Ai and Arad are two of the three "etiological" towns along with Jericho (which, in fact, has Late Bronze) whose inclusion in the conquest narratives is usually associated with their large Early or Middle Bronze ruins (i.e. later Israelites attributed the observed ruins to traditional Joshua and Moses figures). This brief post is not the place to argue for or against this rationale, however, in light of the evidence of 88% of the towns in the Joshua 12 list having Late Bronze/Canaanite occupation it seems worth noting that these arguments are based on exceptions to what appears to be a coherent depiction of Late Bronze Canaan. This at least points to the likelihood that the writer of the Joshua 12 list (which, again, reflects the conquest narratives of Josh. 5-11) had a detailed understanding of the geopolitical landscape of Canaan in the Late Bronze Age.





Download Bibliography here.

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Monday, July 20, 2015

Leviticus Scroll Discovered at En Gedi

A 6th-century AD scroll discovered inside a Torah Ark at En Gedi 45 years ago has recently been deciphered to reveal the first 8 verses of Leviticus, making it the oldest scroll discovered since the Dead Sea Scrolls. From a press release from the Israel Antiquities Authority:

Summary: Modern technologies made it possible for the first time to read the contents of a burnt scroll that was found forty five years ago in archaeological excavations at Ein Gedi, on the western shore of the Dead Sea. Surprisingly the scroll is a 1,500 year old copy of the beginning of the Book of Leviticus….

Details: The parchment scroll was unearthed in 1970 in archaeological excavations in the synagogue at Ein Gedi, headed by the late Dr. Dan Barag and Dr. Sefi Porath. However, due to its charred condition, it was not possible to either preserve or decipher it.

The Lunder Family Dead Sea Scrolls Conservation Center of the Israel Antiquities Authority which uses state of the art and advanced technologies to preserve and document the Dead Sea scrolls enabled the discovery of this important find. It turns out that part of this scroll is from the beginning of the Book of Leviticus, written in Hebrew, and dated by C14 analysis to the late sixth–century CE. To date, this is the most ancient scroll from the five books of the Hebrew Bible to be found since the Dead Sea scrolls, most of which are ascribed to the end of the Second Temple period (first century BCE-first century CE).

There are no English articles yet posted, but you should be able to find them as they appear with this link. Haaretz has the story in its Hebrew edition. High-res images may be downloaded here. Thanks to Joseph Lauer for sending the press release and related links.

Ein Gedi Scroll Fragment-Shai Halevi-IAA

Scroll fragment before study, Shai Halevi, IAA

Suggested Merged Text Layer after Unrolling-Seth Parker-University of Kentucky

Virtual Unrolling and Suggested Merged Text Layer, Seth Parker, University of Kentucky and Ehud Shor, Jerusalem

Ein Gedi Potential Scroll Fragments-Shai Halevi-IAA

Ein Gedi Potential Scroll Fragments for further research, Shai Halevi, IAA

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Saturday, July 18, 2015

Weekend Roundup

The finds keep coming in the excavations of Gath.

A mosaic with a verse from Isaiah 65 has been discovered in Adana, Turkey.

A thief has returned two ballista balls he took from the excavations of Gamla twenty years ago.

The US has returned more than 400 ancient artifacts to Iraq seized from a leader of the Islamic State. There are many photos here.

Researchers are working to restore Iraq’s destroyed monuments online.

Police have arrested suspects in the arson case of the Tabgha Church of the Multiplication of Loaves and Fish.

Simon Gathercole: 5 Reasons Why the Gospel of Jesus’s Wife is a Fake

The Temple Institute is raising a red heifer in Israel.

Ayelet Gilboa writes about the significance of Tel Dor in the Jerusalem Post.

Jennie Ebeling talks about the Jezreel excavations on the Book and the Spade.

You can get up to speed on the excavations at Tel ‘Eton (Eglon?) with this article by Avraham Faust and Hayah Katz at the ASOR Blog (registration required).

The Water Gate in Jerusalem gets Wayne Stiles to thinking about its past and present significance.

Are you a Mesopotamian know-it-all? The ASOR Blog has 14 questions to test your knowledge.

The PEF introduces a new series: Interviews from the Jerusalem Chamber.

The dates for the 2016 season at Tel Burna have been announced.

Exploring Jordan: The Other Biblical Land is a free e-book from the Biblical Archaeology Society that includes articles on Bethany, Rabbath of the Ammonites, Philadelphia, Moab, and Petra.

The Illustrated Life of Paul by Charles L. Quarles is $0.99 on Kindle today.

HT: Ted Weis, Charles Savelle, Agade, Paleojudaica

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Monday, July 13, 2015

The Virtual Bible

(Post by A.D. Riddle)

With apologies for getting this out late, today is the last day of an introductory sale on The Virtual Bible, by Accordance Bible Software.

The Virtual Bible [is] a new visual resource which offers three-dimensional reconstructions of the land of Israel, first-century Jerusalem, the Herodian Temple, and more. The visuals, which include still images and video fly-throughs, were developed by Dr. Daniel Warner of New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary and Dr. James Strange of the University of South Florida, in consultation with Leen Ritmeyer, an archaeological architect who is an expert on the Jerusalem Temple.

For sample videos, see this Accordance blog post.

For product details, click here.

This video shows how The Virtual Bible is produced.

As I was reading about this product, I learned that The Virtual Bible has been around for a little while (here and here; the project was begun in 1999). The Virtual Bible is new to Accordance, and they describe the product as "Enhanced" though I am not sure what that means.

For details of the sale, you can view the Accordance announcement here. The sale includes several other graphics packages in their summer sale, including four from BiblePlaces.com:



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Sunday, July 12, 2015

Weekend Roundup, Part 2

Short one billion dollars to complete the Grand Egyptian Museum, Egypt has pushed its opening back from this year to 2022. Zahi Hawass has ideas on how to raise the money.

A special edition of DigSight reports on the excavations of Lachish.

A special issue of World Heritage magazine is devoted to historical sites in Iraq.

The 18th Annual Bible and Archaeology Fest will be held this year in Atlanta.

The National Academy of Sciences has criticized the political use of archaeology in a recent report.

The Islamic State is selling looted art.

Aviva and Shmuel Bar-Am give a history of the recent excavations at Magdala.

Carl Rasmussen notes that the rooftop of Nebi Samwil is now open and photos are allowed at Jacob’s Well.

The Dome of the Rock may re-open to non-Muslim visitors.

ASOR quiz: Can you identify these Near Eastern languages?

A clay image of a Canaanite fertility goddess was discovered in Luke Chandler’s square at Lachish this week.

The Action Bible is on sale for $4.99 for the Kindle.

Wayne Stiles: “I thought I understood the wilderness wanderings of Israel. Then I traveled through the wilderness.”

Some Israeli history buffs have re-enacted the Crusader battle at the Horns of Hattin. Check out the photos.

HT: Agade, Ted Weiss, Charles Savelle

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Saturday, July 11, 2015

Weekend Roundup, Part 1

The first permanent Roman legionary camp has been discovered near Megiddo. Scholars long knew of its existence because of the site’s preserved name of Legio, but only recently have they found remains. This year-old article at Bible History Daily has more of the background than the recent news reports.

Excavators working at the Jewish village of Shikhin near Sepphoris have discovered a pottery workshop.

A family in Ein Kerem near Jerusalem found an ancient mikveh (ritual bath) underneath their living room. High-res photos are available here.

Jodi Magness has discovered more mosaics in her excavation of the Jewish synagogue of Huqoq. For photos, see the links at the end of the article.

Here’s the latest on the gate discovered this week at Gath.

UNESCO has added the tombs of Beth Shearim, Jordan’s Baptism Site, and Susa to its World Heritage List.

CNN has put the Dome of the Rock in the number one spot of places to visit before they are destroyed. ISIS-controlled Palmyra is not on the list.

This looks interesting: Urban Legends of the New Testament: 40 Common Misconceptions. It quotes this blog and comes out on Monday.

Wayne Stiles is leading a tour focused on the life and land of Jesus in 2016, with a $550 reduction from this year’s tour price with the early bird rate.

A detailed report of the destruction to the archaeological site of Palmyra is available from the ASOR Syrian Heritage Initiative.

Ross Burns is keeping a tally of destruction to historic Syrian sites.

The Palestine Exploration Fund has been celebrating its 150th anniversary.

Here’s a unique aerial photo of Gibeah of Saul (Tell el-Ful), taken in 1931 before King Hussein’s construction destroyed Saul’s palace.

Shlomo Moussaieff died recently.

HT: Agade, Paul Mitchell, Joseph Lauer, Charles Savelle, Steven Anderson

Roman-camp-Megiddo

Location of Roman legionary camp at Megiddo

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Wednesday, July 08, 2015

Gigantic Fortification Wall and Possible Gate at Gath!

by Chris McKinny

Aren Maeir (director of Tell es-Safi/Gath) has just reported that there appears to be evidence of a "Gigantic Gate at Gath." In light of last weekend's announcement of discovering the wall of the lower city and probable Iron Age re-use of Early Bronze Age fortifications, it would be amazing to find the gate itself!

Significantly, Gath's fortifications are directly mentioned twice in the Bible.

“He (Uzziah) went out and made war against the Philistines and broke through the wall of Gath and the wall of Jabneh and the wall of Ashdod, and he built cities in the territory of Ashdod and elsewhere among the Philistines.” (2 Chronicles 26:6 ESV)

“So he (David) changed his behavior before them and pretended to be insane in their hands and made marks on the doors of the gate and let his spittle run down his beard.” (1 Samuel 21:13 ESV)

Now if Aren and his team would just find the marks on the door... :) 


Wednesday, July 01, 2015

Recent Books on Crucifixion

(Post by A.D. Riddle)

I recently saw an announcement for a brand new volume by David Chapman and Eckhard Schnabel that collects together all extra-biblical texts relevant to understanding the trail and crucifixion of Jesus. The book is entitled The Trial and Crucifixion of Jesus: Texts and Commentary. It caught my eye because I find Schnabel’s writing to be very thorough and helpful. Several books on crucifixion, in fact, have appeared in the last few years from the same publisher.

Chapman, David W.
2008 Ancient Jewish and Christian Perceptions of Crucifixion. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2. Reihe 244. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.  [Republished by Baker Academic, 2010.]
The bulk of this volume is devoted to an inductive study of the ancient sources regarding crucifixion with an eye to understanding the way in which Jews perceived crucifixion. Here Chapman discusses ancient texts from various types of literature that can be described as Jewish (e.g., the Apocrypha, Josephus, Philo, rabbinics, etc.). Chapman’s survey reveals a variety of perceptions from martyrdoms to scandalous punishments for brigands and rebels...Concerning the primary sources, it seems that Chapman has not missed any significant extant material....Although acknowledging the existence of various methods and devices, [Chapman] is not claiming that Jesus died on a pole (or other device); rather, he says crucifixion could take place in a number of ways...The goals of crucifixion included torture, shame, and death. How the cross looked or what shape it was in was not the main concern. (Review by Joseph D. Fantin.)

Samuelsson, Gunnar.
2013 Crucifixion in Antiquity: An Inquiry into the Background and Significance of the New Testament Terminology of Crucifixion. 2nd ed. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2. Reihe 310. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

This work is a semantic study of the Greek words typically translated “crucify” or “crucifixion.” Prior to its release, popular media tried to create controversy out of the book’s “sensational” claim that the Greek terms do not refer specifically to crucifixion, but only generally to suspension.
Gunnar Samuelsson investigates the philological aspects of how ancient Greek, Latin and Hebrew/Aramaic texts depict crucifixions. A survey of the texts shows that there has been too narrow a view of the “crucifixion” terminology. The various terms do not only refer to “crucify” and “cross.” They are used much more diversely. Hence, most of the crucifixion accounts that scholars cite in the ancient literature have to be rejected, leaving only a few. (From the publisher’s website.)

Cook, John Granger.
2014 Crucifixion in the Mediterranean World. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 327. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

This work, originally conceived as a revision of Hengel's work on the subject, is in some ways a response to Samuelsson. It casts a wider net by investigating Greek, Latin, Hebrew and Aramaic texts, as well as pictorial representations and archaeological evidence. A very brief summary can be found at the Bible and Interpretation website.
To understand the phenomenon of Roman crucifixion, the author argues that one should begin with an investigation of the evidence from Latin texts and inscriptions (such as the lex Puteolana [the law of Puteoli]) supplemented by what may be learned from the surviving archaeological material (e.g., the Arieti fresco of a man on a patibulum [horizontal beam], the Puteoli and Palatine graffiti of crucifixion, the crucifixion nail in the calcaneum bone from Jerusalem, and the Pereire gem of the crucified Jesus [III CE]). This evidence clarifies the precise meaning of terms such as patibulum and crux (vertical beam or cross), which in turn illuminate the Greek terms [e.g., σταυρός, σταυρόω and ἀνασταυρόω] and texts that describe crucifixion or penal suspension. It is of fundamental importance that Greek texts be read against the background of Latin texts and Roman historical practice. The author traces the use of the penalty by the Romans until its probable abolition by Constantine and its eventual transformation into the Byzantine punishment by the furca (the fork), a form of penal suspension that resulted in immediate death (a penalty illustrated by the sixth century Vienna Greek codex of Genesis). Cook does not neglect the legal sources — including the question of the permissibility of the crucifixion of Roman citizens and the crimes for which one could be crucified. In addition to the Latin and Greek authors, texts in Hebrew and Aramaic that refer to penal suspension and crucifixion are examined. Brief attention is given to crucifixion in the Islamic world and to some modern forms of penal suspension including haritsuke (with two photographs), a penalty closely resembling crucifixion that was used in Tokugawan Japan. The material contributes to the understanding of the crucifixion of Jesus and has implications for the theologies of the cross in the New Testament. The relevant ancient images are included. (Abstract from author’s Academia.edu page.)

Chapman, David W., and Eckhard J. Schnabel.
2015 The Trial and Crucifixion of Jesus: Texts and Commentary.
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 344.
Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
The purpose of this comprehensive sourcebook by David W. Chapman and Eckhard J. Schnabel is to publish the extra-biblical primary texts that have been cited as relevant for understanding Jesus' trial and crucifixion. The texts in the first part deal with Jesus' trial and interrogation before the Sanhedrin, and the texts in the second part concern Jesus' trial before Pilate. The texts in part three represent crucifixion as a method of execution in antiquity. For each document the authors provide the original text (Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, etc.), a translation, and commentary. The commentary describes the literary context and the purpose of each document in context before details are clarified, along with observations on the contribution of these texts to understanding Jesus' trial and crucifixion. (From the publisher’s website.)
Table of Contents
Part 1. The Jewish Trial before the Sanhedrin (E. J. Schnabel)
          1.1 Annas and Caiaphas
          1.2 The Jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin
          1.3 Capital Cases in Jewish Law
          1.4 Interrogation of Witnesses
          1.5 The Charge of Blasphemy
          1.6 The Charge of Being a Seducer
          1.7 The Charge of Sorcery
          1.8 Abuse of Prisoners
          1.9 Transfer of Court Cases
Part 2. The Roman Trial before Pontius Pilatus (E. J. Schnabel)
          2.1 Pontius Pilatus
          2.2 The Jurisdiction of Roman Prefects
          2.3 The crimen maiestatis in Roman Law
          2.4 Reports of Trial Proceedings
          2.5 Languages Used in Provincial Court Proceedings
          2.6 Amnesty and Acclamatio Populi
          2.7 Abuse of Convicted Criminals
          2.8 Requisitioning of Provincials
          2.9 Carrying the Crossbeam
          2.10 Titulus
Part 3. Crucifixion (D. W. Chapman)
          3.1 Crucifixion, Bodily Suspension, and Issues of Definition
          3.2 Bodily Suspension in the Ancient Near East
          3.3 Barbarians and Crucifixion according to Graeco-Roman Sources
          3.4 Suspension and Crucifixion in Classical and Hellenistic Greece
          3.5 Jewish Suspension and Crucifixion
          3.6 Victims of Crucifixion in the Roman Period
          3.7 Suspension and Crucifixion in Hellenistic and Roman Palestine
          3.8 Methods and Practices of Bodily Suspension in the Roman Period
          3.9 Crucifixion Terminology Applied to Earlier Traditions
          3.10 Perceptions of Crucifixion in Antiquity
          3.11 Reception of the Christian Message of the Crucified Messiah


Monday, June 29, 2015

Olive Wood Art Models of Jerusalem

Issam Salsaa of Bethlehem has created a number of detailed models of Jerusalem and Bethlehem that are quite impressive. You can check out his YouTube videos to see several of them:

The Old City

The Citadel of David (and a second)

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church of the Nativity (and with lights)

Olive wood model of the Citadel of David, created by Issam Salsaa

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