Monday, September 01, 2014

Conference on Khirbet Qeiyafa

The Swiss Society for Near Eastern Studies (Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Orientalische Altertumswissenschaft) is holding its autumn conference this Saturday in Bern, Switzerland. The conference is devoted to a single site in Israel and is organized by the Institute of Biblical Studies.

KHIRBET QEIYAFA IN THE SHEPHELA

Venue: University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 6, 2nd Floor, Room 205

09.30–09.45: Prof. Dr. Silvia Schroer, University of Bern: Welcome and Introduction

09.45–11.00: Prof. Dr. Yosef Garfinkel, Hebrew University, Jerusalem: Khirbet Qeiyafa and the Kingdom of Judah

11.00–11.45: Prof. Dr. Aren Maeir, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: Khirbet Qeiyafa in Its Regional Context: A View from Philistine Gath

11.45–12.45: Response 1 & 2: Archaeological and Historical Aspects - Prof. Dr. Thomas Römer, University of Lausanne / Collège de France & Dr. Stefan Münger, University of Bern

14.00–14.30: Plenary Discussion - Discussion Moderator: Prof. Dr. Thomas Römer

14.30–15.15: Prof. Dr. Silvia Schroer, University of Bern: Iconographic Finds from Khirbet Qeiyafa

15.15–16.00: Prof. Dr. Benjamin Sass, Tel Aviv University: The Epigraphic Finds from Khirbet Qeiyafa in Context

16.00–16.30: Response 3: Prof. Dr. Axel Knauf, University of Bern

16.30–17.15: Panel Discussion

The conference flyer has all of the details including abstracts of the presentations.

HT: Agade

Khirbet Qeiyafa west gate, tb010412815

West gate of Khirbet Qeiyafa, looking towards Azekah 
Photo from Judah and the Dead Sea

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Saturday, August 30, 2014

Weekend Roundup

Maritime archaeologists have discovered a Phoenician shipwreck dating to 700 BC off the coast of Malta.

A new study of the Timna copper mines shows that the workers in the 10th century BC were not slaves but highly skilled craftsmen.

Corinthian Matters has a review of a field trip app that accompanies the ASCSA’s new Ancient Corinth: A Guide to the Site and Museum.

Ferrell Jenkins describes his recent visit to the Louvre in Paris.

Tiberias—There’s More to See than Just Hotels. Yes, indeed.

Leon Mauldin visits the other Bethlehem. This lesser-known biblical site is in Galilee.

Clyde Billington is on the Book and the Spade this week discussing the “stone rejected by the builders” along with the use of tokens for counting.

Accordance has a sale now on a five-resource bundle from Rose Publishing, including their guides to the tabernacle and temple.

Paul L. Maier’s Pontius Pilate is marked down to $2.99 for the Kindle. I recommend it.

HT: Charles Savelle

Timna Chalcolithic copper mine, tb030807061

Copper mine in Timna Valley
Photo from Negev and the Wilderness

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Thursday, August 28, 2014

Notable Quotes from Cline, From Eden to Exile

I recently came across some quotations I had marked from a past reading of Eric H. Cline, From Eden to Exile: Unraveling Mysteries of the Bible, and thought some of them worth sharing. I’ve commented briefly on each quote following the citation. The book’s table of contents indicates the topics covered:

Chapter 1: The Garden of Eden
Chapter 2: Noah’s Ark
Chapter 3: Sodom and Gomorrah
Chapter 4: Moses and the Exodus
Chapter 5: Joshua and the Battle of Jericho
Chapter 6: The Ark of the Covenant
Chapter 7: The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel

“The biblical stories become real when people adopt them as their own, regardless of their historical accuracy” (Cline 2007: xiii). So what is not real becomes real when we make it real. In our day and age, it really is all about us.

“The truth of the matter is that any such searches for Noah’s ark are unlikely ever to be successful. Even if the ark did exist, it would be tremendously old by now and its wooden parts would have been long ago reduced to dust, leaving few traces behind. The most we could hope for would be discovering something like the Sutton Hoo ship in England from the seventh century A.D.; the disintegrated wood and corroded nails from this vessel left a perfect imprint on the damp soil. Only if the ark had come to rest in the sands of Egypt, which contain perfectly preserved pharaonic boats by the Pyramids, or at the bottom of an ocean or a sea where there is little oxygen and organic material is perfectly preserved—such as in the Black Sea, where Bob Ballard’s expeditions have found ships sunk up to their gunwales and perfectly preserved in anoxygenic mud—would we even be able to hope that Noah’s ark, or portions of it, have been preserved” (Cline 2007: 36). But as long as there is fame to be had and money to be made, there will be searches for Noah’s Ark.

“Modern archaeological techniques are quite capable of tracing even the very meager remains of hunter-gatherers and pastoral nomads all over the world” (Cline 2007: 85). Perhaps, but entire centuries are missing from the archaeological record in some places.

“Of the various alternatives, following the biblical chronology and placing the Exodus in the 15th century B.C. seems the most unlikely, but some will want to do that anyway, based upon faith rather than reason” (Cline 2007: 90). Those I’ve read who advocate a 15th-century exodus always appeal to evidence and arguments, never to faith.

“Finkelstein said, ‘I am a great believer in a total separation between tradition and research. I myself have a warm spot in my heart for the Bible and its splendid stories. During our Pesach seder, my two girls, who are 11 and 7, didn’t hear a word about the fact that there was no Exodus from Egypt. When they are 25, we will tell them a different story. Belief, tradition and research are three parallel lines that can exist simultaneously. I don’t see that as a gross contradiction’” (Cline 2007: 91). For thousands of years before our post-modern advances, we would call this lying.

“The team also cited both its own studies and those of other researchers who believe the story of the damming of the Jordan River can be traced back to a 1931 book published by John Garstang. The book is, as the article stated, ‘the only source reporting about the Jordan’s damming at Damiya.’ The team of earthquake experts strongly suggests that Garstang’s testimony is unreliable, especially since he was not even in the country at the time and since no other sources, including official police reports or press releases, mention a damming of the Jordan River. They speculate that Garstang’s desire to prove that Damiya is the biblical ‘city of Adam’ and his desire to show that the Jordan could have stopped flowing as a result of an earthquake affected his reporting” (Cline 2007: 105). Unless you know of other evidence, you should not cite the dubious testimony of Garstang.

“In a candid article, Younker said that the ‘Andrews Way’ of doing archaeology, as he phrased it, is as follows: 1. Be forthright with findings. Do not minimize problems or stretch interpretations of data to explain things away. 2. Do not make claims beyond what the data can support. 3. Be quick and complete in publishing results. 4. Engage and work within mainstream scholarship. 5. Include a diversity of people and specialists. 6. Take the history of the Bible seriously, but do not place upon archaeology the burden of ‘proving’ the Bible” (Cline 2007: 187). This helpful approach is given in Randall W. Younker, ‘Integrating Faith, the Bible, and Archaeology: A Review of the ‘Andrews University Way’ of Doing Archaeology,’ in The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions, eds. James K. Hoffmeier and Alan Millard (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004), 43-52.

Cline’s newest book, 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed, came out earlier this year.

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Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Artifact of the Month: Esarhaddon Stela

(Posted by Michael J. Caba)

Esarhaddon was an Assyrian king noted in Biblical passages such as 2 Kings 19:37. He erected the monument shown in the picture to commemorate a military victory in Egypt. The dolerite monument is over ten feet high and was made in the 7th century BC. It was found in 1881 in the modern city of Zinjirli, Turkey, and the text is written in the Akkadian language using the cuneiform script. Esarhaddon himself is depicted in the carving, which is now located in the Museum of the Ancient Near East, Pergamum Museum, Berlin. 

Esarhaddon was a powerful Assyrian king during the 7th century BC, and King Manasseh of Judah was a vassal ruler under his sovereignty. In the royal inscriptions of Esarhaddon (not shown here) reference is made to "Manasseh, King of Judah," who was required to help provide building material to Esarhaddon for the construction of the Assyrian ruler's palace.

For information on similar artifacts related to the Bible, see Bible and Archaeology - Online Museum.

(Photo: BiblePlaces.com. Significant resource for further study: Lost Treasures of the Bible, by Fant and Reddish, pages 177-81.)

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Now Available in Canada: Satellite Bible Atlas

The Satellite Bible Atlas now has a Canadian distributor. Until now, shipping to Canada from the U.S. cost nearly as much as the book itself. The Family Christian Bookstore in Ontario now sells the atlas, and shipping charges are much more reasonable to Canadian addresses. The Bible Lands Satellite Map is also available.

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Monday, August 25, 2014

Trinity Biblical and ANE Archaeology Lecture Series

(Post by A.D. Riddle)

On Tuesday, September 16, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, IL will present the fall lecture in its “Trinity Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Archaeology Lecture Series.” William M. Schniedewind (UCLA) will speak on the topic “Early Hebrew Scribes — When Israel Began to Write.” The lecture begins at 7:00 p.m. and will take place in Hinkson Hall, Rodine Building. The event is free and open to the public.


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Saturday, August 23, 2014

Weekend Roundup

SourceFlix has produced a short video illustrating Psalm 23.

Wayne Stiles has everything you want to know about Timna Park, including photos, a time-lapse video, Google Street View, and a map.

“Researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have discovered the deepest cave in Israel, reaching a depth of 187 meters below ground.”

The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names is now online for free.

If you’re thinking about visiting the Pergamum Museum in Berlin anytime soon, read Ferrell Jenkins’ recent post.

A copper awl discovered not far from Beth Shean is now believed to be the oldest metal object known from the Middle East. The University of Haifa press release is online here.

“The Iraqi National Museum inaugurated two renovated halls adorned with life-size stone statues on Thursday.”

The new editors of BASOR have penned an inaugural letter describing their plans and offering an invitation.

Jordan’s Tourism Board has launched a new online chat service.

HT: Joseph Lauer, Jack Sasson, Charles Savelle, A.D. Riddle

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Thursday, August 21, 2014

Christian Inscription on Grand Mosque of Damascus

I came across this notable observation yesterday when looking over some photos in Earthly Footsteps of the Man of Galilee.

The Grand Mosque of Damascus is one of the most interesting buildings in the East.  It is quadrangular in form, one hundred and sixty-three yards wide, by one hundred and eight yards long.  A lofty wall of fine masonry surrounds it.  A few years ago the building was almost destroyed by fire. 

One of the most wonderful things about this mosque is an inscription which is pointed out to the tourist.  It runs over an arch in the second story.  You can see even in this picture the Greek letters which form the following sentence: "Thy kingdom, O Christ, is an everlasting kingdom, and Thy dominion endureth throughout all generations."  This is the Septuagint rendering of Psalms, cxlv [145]: 13, with the simple addition of the name of Christ.  What a curious inscription to find on a Moslem mosque!  And yet, how true it is that the kingdom of Christ is an everlasting kingdom.  To-day the power of Mohammedanism is waning. 

279 Inscription, Grand Mosque, ef0279

Grand Mosque Lintel with Inscription
Photo from
Earthly Footsteps of the Man of Galilee

A 2010 article in the Wall Street Journal gives the history: Muslims reused stones of the church they razed. The builder of the mosque, al-Walid, was also responsible for the construction of the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.

Unfortunately the last observation in the quotation above has proven false. But that is in accord with Scripture which speaks of the numerous enemies present on earth when Jesus returns (Ps 2; Zech 14; Rev 19).

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Monday, August 18, 2014

Conference: Aram and Israel in the 12th to 8th Centuries BC

Heidelberg Colloquium on the Subject of Aram and Israel: Cultural Interaction, Political Borders and Construction of Identity during the Early Iron Age (12th–8th Centuries BCE)

IWH Symposium, September 1-4, 2014
IWH Hauptstrasse 242, Heidelberg
Organisation: Prof. Manfred Oeming, Dr. Omer Sergi, Dr. Izaak de Hulster

Monday, Sept. 1, 2014

14:00-14:30: Introduction

14:00-14:10: Peter Comba, Manfred Oeming, Greetings

14:10-14:30: Omer Sergi and Izaak de Hulster, Historical Outline for Aram and Israel

First Session: Jordan Valley between Aram and Israel: Archaeological Perspectives
Chair: Izaak de Hulster

14:30-15:15: Amihai Mazar, Looking for Aramaean Impact in the Beth-Shean Valley in Light of the Excavations at Tel Beth Shean and Tel Rehov

15:15-16:00: Stefan Münger, Who, When, and Why–Investigating Cultural Footprints at Early Iron Age Tel Kinrot

16:30-17:15: Nava Panitz-Cohen, Aram-Maacah? Aramaeans and Israelites on the Border: Excavations at Tel Abil al-Qameh (Abel Beth Maacah) in Northern Israel

17:15-18:00: Yifat Thareani, Enemy at the Gates? The Archaeological Visibility of the Aramaeans at Dan

18:00-18:30: Discussion

Tuesday, Sept. 2, 2014
Second Session: Aspects of Material Culture between Aram and Israel
Chair: Omer Sergi

9:00-9:45: Izaak de Hulster, The Aram–Israel Border Zone: Two Comparative Iconographic Case Studies

9:45-10:30: Benjamin Sass, Aram and Israel during the Early Iron Age (12th-8th Centuries BCE): The Alphabet

11:00-11:45: Assaf Kleiman, Dating the Aramaean Campaigns to the Southern Levant: A Gradual Process of Destructions?

11:45-12:30: Aren Maeir, The Aramaean Involvement in the Southern Levant: Case Studies for Identifying the Archaeological Evidence

12:30-13:00: Discussion

Third Session: Aramaean Identity in Changing Cultural Contexts
Chair: Jan Christian Gertz

14:30-15:15: Christoph Uehlinger, What are We Looking for when dealing with 'Identity' and the 'Construction of Identity' in Levantine Societies of the Iron Age? (with an Excursus on the Bethsaida Stela)

15:15-16:00: Guy Bunnens, Tradition, Innovation and Cultural Borders in Aramaean Syria

16:30-17:15: Stefania Mazzoni, Identity and Multiculturality in the Northern Levant of the 9th-7th century B.C. with a Case Study on Tell Afis

17:15-18:00: Herbert Niehr, The Power of Language:, Language Situation and Language Politics in Sam' al

18:00-18:30: Discussion

Wednesday, Sept. 3, 2014
Fourth Session: The Border Zone between Aram and Israel: Historical Reflections
Chair: Juha Pakkala

9:00-9:45: Israel Finkelstein, Aram and Israel: Some Cultural and Historical Reflections

9:45-10:30: Erhard Blum, The ‘Borders’ between Israel and Aram-Damascus in the 9th-8th Centuries BCE according to Biblical and Epigraphical Sources

11:00-11:45: Omer Sergi, Gilead between Aram and Israel: Some Historical and Historiographical Considerations

11:45-12:30: Jutta Häser, Tell Zira'a in the Iron Age

12:30-13:00: Discussion

Fifth Session: Historical Memory of Aram in Israel’s Bible
Chair: Dorothea Erbele-Küster

14:30-15:15: Manfred Oeming, “And the King of Aram was at War with Israel"– The Construction of the Aramaean as an Enemy in the Elisha Cycle 2 King 2-13.

15:15-16:00: Matthias Köckert, Jacob Cycle and the Aramaean Identity of Israel

16:30-17:15: Angelika Berlejung, Family Ties: Constructed Memories about Aram and the Aramaeans in the Old Testament - “God's People Network”

17:15-18:00: Nili Wazana, “My Father was a Wandering Aramaean”: The Implications for Israelite Identity

18:00-18:30: Discussion

Thursday, Sept. 4, 2014
Concluding Session: Israel among the Aramaeans
Chair: Manfred Oeming

9:00-10:30: Concluding discussion

The Colloquium is supported by: Heidelberg University, Fritz Thyssen Stiftung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

The program is available in pdf format here.

Another topic that seems relevant to this conference: Textual Witnesses to the Aramean Oppression of Israel in the Late Ninth Century. And another: Archaeological Evidence for the Aramean Route to Philistine Gath. I’ve written on both in my dissertation.

HT: Jack Sasson

Tel Chinnereth from north, tb102702025

Tell Chinnereth (Tel Kinrot) and the Sea of Galilee
Photo from volume 1

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Saturday, August 16, 2014

Weekend Roundup

Anna Moseley Gissing writes about three lessons she learned from archaeology about the spiritual life.

Haaretz reports that the appointment of Israel's new antiquities chief is embroiled in politics.

Should the Vatican return the menorah from the Jerusalem Temple? Steven Fine assigned his class the task of refuting the notion that the Vatican has it.

Greek archaeologists excavating a fourth-century BC tomb at Amphipolis have made an “extremely important find.”

Camels Mummification existed in Egypt 1,500 years earlier than scientists have long believed.

The Egyptian government has asked the Ashmolean museum to lend it the personal collection of Howard Carter.

Brian Daniels discusses Preserving Culture in War on this week’s broadcast of The Book and the Spade.

What is the relationship between the archaeology of Jerusalem and the Book of Mormon? SourceFlix has produced a new video that answers this question.

Wayne Stiles describes two oases along the shore of the Dead Sea. (Can you guess which ones they are? Neither one ends with “Gedi.”) He includes photos, a video, and a map.

HT: Joseph Lauer, Jack Sasson

Arch of Titus Temple treasures scene left, tb112105077

Triumphal procession depicted on the Arch of Titus in Rome
Photo from Pictorial Library of Bible Lands, volume 15

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Thursday, August 14, 2014

Archaeologists Use Drones To Solve Riddles

From the New York Times:

Archaeologists around the world, who have long relied on the classic tools of their profession, like the trowel and the plumb bob, are now turning to the modern technology of drones to defend and explore endangered sites. And perhaps nowhere is the shift happening as swiftly as in Peru, where Dr. Castillo has created a drone air force to map, monitor and safeguard his country’s ancient treasures.

Drones mark “a before and after in archaeology,” said Dr. Castillo, who is also a prominent archaeologist and one of a dozen experts who will outline the use of drones at a conference in San Francisco next year.

[…]

In the Middle East, researchers have employed them to guard against looting.

“Aerial survey at the site is allowing for the identification of new looting pits and determinations of whether any of the looters’ holes had been revisited,” said Morag Kersel, an archaeologist from DePaul University in Chicago who is part of a team using drones in Jordan and Israel.

[…]

Though his work is focused on the deep past, Dr. Castillo is fascinated by gadgets and new technology. He began experimenting with drones about two years ago, buying a $100 one from the Sharper Image. Now he has a squadron of eight, all miniature helicopters that cost about $1,500 to $20,000. He hopes to soon add 20 more.

The drones, he said, “solve the first riddle of archaeology.”

“Finally you can fly whenever you want to, wherever you want to, in any angle, for anything you want and get the great picture you always thought you should take,” he said.

The full story focuses mostly on the use of drones in Peru. Aren Maeir recently posted a video showing a drone in use in his excavations of the Philistine city of Gath.

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Wednesday, August 13, 2014

3D Scanner Reveals History of Israel’s Pottery

From the Jerusalem Post:

We’re all familiar with the kinds of archaeological research seen in movies and television — digging the earth, brushing the dust away, and examining artifacts up close. But these days, we can learn even more about ancient artifacts by combining traditional archaeology with cutting-edge technology.

At the Hebrew University’s Institute of Archaeology, researchers were curious to know more about a type of storage container that began appearing around the late 10th or early 9th century BCE. Due to their large swollen bodies, they are dubbed 'Hippo' jars.

To probe the deep secrets of these ancient jars, the researchers — Prof. Amihai Mazar, Prof. Uzy Smilansky, and Dr. Avshalom Karasik — went beyond traditional techniques by conducting a series of scans with 3D scanners and advanced computation.

[…]

The Hebrew University researchers measured 158 Hippo jars with a high resolution 3D scanner at the Computerized Archaeology Laboratory, which is directed by Dr. Leore Grosman. (The laboratory is a joint initiative of the Hebrew University, the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Weizmann Institute of Science, with the University of Haifa serving as a collaborating partner.)

Equipped with modern, high precision scanners, the lab created detailed three-dimensional models of the 'Hippo' jars.

These digital models provided precise measurements of the jars’ shape, which was later correlated with independent features, such as the source of the clay used to make them, the potters’ marks, and the jars’ distribution. They also provided information on the jars’ capacity, volume, height and maximal diameter.

What did the researchers learn from the 3D scans?

The article continues here. This is the first in a new column written by students at the Hebrew University’s Institute of Archaeology.

Jars

“Hippo” storage jars
Photo courtesy of Hebrew University Institute of Archaeology

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Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Biblical-Era Artifacts on Display in Pennsylvania

The Lebanon Daily News runs a story on the Alan and Muriel Pense Biblical Archaeology Museum at the Evangelical Seminary. The collection was curated for many years by David Dorsey and is now under the direction of his son-in-law Phillip Bollinger. From the LDN:

The museum has a collection of small, bowl-shaped olive-oil lamps made from clay, through more elaborate closed lamps of metal. The lamps date from the earliest periods of Canaan's history, including the Neolithic and Chalcolithic eras to the early Bronze Age, or sometime before 3200 B.C. to 2200 B.C.

"It helps people to see how styles change over time," he said, and added, "When you're digging at an excavation, that's one of the things that helps you date what you're finding."

Other items in the collection include various types of clay storage jars, which were probably used for water, wine or grain.

"These were the kitchen cabinets of the Old and New Testament periods," Sarah [Dorsey] Bollinger added. "The strength of our collection is in what everyday life was like. We don't have lots of extraordinary or exceptional types of things. We do have a lot to do with writing."

[…]

The museum is divided into two rooms, one for the Old Testament and one for the New Testament. In the hallways between the two rooms there are many artifacts to see as well.

One of the oldest pieces in the collection is a tiny arrowhead that dates to the sixth century B.C.

"It's a flint arrowhead from Jericho; it's 8,000 years old," Phillip Bollinger said. "Probably used for hunting very small game."

Other interesting objects include a 4,000-year-old milk churn, make-up containers made of bone or metal, garment holders, jar handles with King Hezekiah's seal, as well as weapons such as slingshots of the type that David used to slay Goliath.

The full article includes a slideshow and video. The official website is here. For other museums in the U.S. with artifacts related to the biblical world, see our list here.

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Monday, August 11, 2014

Erosion of the Western Wall Studied

A new study explains why some Herodian stones in the Temple Mount of Jerusalem are well preserved after 2,000 years while others are eroding severely, creating concerns about the wall’s stability.

From a press release from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem:

Visitors to the Western Wall in Jerusalem can see that some of its stones are extremely eroded. This is good news for people placing prayer notes in the wall's cracks and crevices, but presents a problem for engineers concerned about the structure’s stability.

The Western Wall is a remnant of the ancient wall that surrounded the courtyard of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. It is located in Jerusalem’s Old City at the foot of the Temple Mount.

To calculate the erosion in the different kinds of limestone that make up the Western Wall, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem used a laser scan to create an accurate three-dimensional computer model. The researchers are Dr. Simon Emmanuel, the Harry P. Kaufmann Senior Lecturer in Environmental Water Technology, and PhD student Mrs. Yael Levenson, at the Hebrew University’s Institute of Earth Sciences.

As reported in an article accepted for publication in the journal Geology, they found that stones made up of relatively large crystals were resistant to wear, so that they were almost unchanged in the 2000 years since they were originally put in place. By contrast, limestone with very small crystals (about one thousandth of a millimeter in size) eroded far more quickly.

In some cases, extreme erosion rates in fine-grained micritic limestone blocks were up to 100 times faster than the average rates estimated for the coarse-grained limestone blocks. In some places these stones had receded by tens of centimeters, potentially weakening the overall structure. 

To understand what causes the two types of rock to behave differently, the researchers collected samples from ancient quarries thought to have supplied the stones for the Second Temple. Using a powerful atomic force microscope, they were able to see how the rocks disintegrated when they came into contact with water. During the experiments on rocks made up of small crystals, tiny particles rapidly detached from the surface of the rock. These experiments simulated the way in which rain water interacts with limestone in nature.

Observed for the first time in Dr Emmanuel’s lab, this process of accelerated erosion can explain why some rocks are more weathered than others. While mechanical weathering is thought to act on blocks and chips of rock at the visible outcrop scale, the researchers showed for the first time that chemo-mechanical erosion extends down to the tiny micron scale. The findings could have important implications for regional and global carbonate weathering.

According to Dr. Emmanuel, “Understanding such weathering processes could help guide the development of effective preservation techniques. For example, it may be possible to develop materials that slow the rate of erosion by binding the tiny crystals in the rock together. Advanced engineering techniques like this should assist efforts to protect not only the Western Wall, but other cultural heritage sites in Israel and around the world.”

The research appears as “Carbonate weathering rates accelerated by micron-scale grain detachment,” in the journal Geology. The research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation.

The story is also reported by the Jerusalem Post.

Men praying at Western Wall, tb010312467-2

Eroded stones in the Western Wall of the Temple Mount
Photo from Jerusalem

Microscope image of Jerusalem limestone made up of tiny crystals. Photo: Dr. Simon Emmanuel, Hebrew University

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